PALS Toolkit: SNV Ethiopia

PALS Toolkit December 2017 produced for SNV Gender and Youth Empowerment in horticulture Markets (GYEM) project 2016-2018 funded by Comic Relief.

Overview Guides

PALS in GYEM Overview
Fun with a Serious Purpose: Facilitation Guide

Catalyst Toolkit

Champions from Timret November 2016 show their favourite catalyst tool.

Tool 1 Soulmate Visioning
Tool 2 Vision Journey
Tool 3 Change Leadership Map
Tool 4 Happy Family Tree

Livelihood Strengthening

Champions from Meki Batu show their Livelihood Management Calendars.

Tool 5 Challenge Action Tree
Tool 6 Livelihood Management Calendar

For reports including details of how facilitation was actually done in practice see: https://palsethiopia.wordpress.com/pals-reports/

For on the GYEM project see: https://palsethiopia.wordpress.com

Facilitation Process

In PALS, the best facilitation is ‘from the back’ where the facilitator empowers participants to express themselves. PALS facilitation skills are very different from those taught in many other ‘facilitation’ trainings, but the approach leads to more effective and sustainable change outcomes. Through encouraging participants to speak and asking a few pointed questions, good facilitation manages to arrive at a point where most of the important issues come from participants themselves. Participants are then in turn able to facilitate similar activities without external support when they go back home.

This requires practice and experience – and often a leap of faith to let things take their course – and is hard even for those trained in many other participatory awareness-raising and training techniques. It also requires intense observation of the participatory process, and use of some key techniques to increase participation

    • Pairwise discussion:start each session/day with a participatory pairwise recapitulation of the previous session, or questions on perceptions and expectations of the meeting while others are arriving.
    • Start from the back or with minority participants in all feedback (e.g. men first if they are poor and fewer in number) to show respect for those who are likely to be less confident and to promote inclusion.

Group microphone

     introduce some sort of tool such as a stick or a banana to represent a microphone. It is only the person holding this tool who is allowed to talk.

  • Applause and respect for everyone at all times through a culturally relevant show of appreciation following each presentation.
  • No political correctness No one should feel they cannot ask questions or say things which they feel – provided this is done in a real spirit of wanting to understand and does not undermine the free expression of others.
  • Make sure everyone has contributed: at the end of each stage anyone who has not spoken or drawn on the diagram must be given the ‘microphone’ or pen and encouraged to comment/draw on the diagram.

Songs And Dance

PALS participants develop new participatory songs and dances.Songs and drama are used to subvert existing cultural stereotypes, explore changes and experiment with different, new ways of doing things in future. As well as being enjoyable energisers, songs and dances reinforce gender messages and are a fun way of disseminating the methodology. The aim is that men and women should go away humming a Gender Balance Song, singing it in the shower or while working. In Vuasu they are registering their song themes as mobile phone ring tones.

Most sessions start and/or end with some culturally appropriate event such as a song or a dance which reinforces the basic philosophy and gender justice principles of the particular tool or issue that is the subject of that particular meeting. The aim is not a polished performance to raise awareness, but to directly engage participants in identifying and rehearsing changes. There are no professional actors or singers, no one leads and everyone participates.

Participatory Drama

Community theatre is commonly used as a means of gender awareness-raising. Role plays are also part of most gender capacity building and workshops. However, there are a range of interesting innovations in participatory drama which could be more fully incorporated for:

  • Capacity-building workshops
  • Multistakeholder negotiation
  • Monitoring and Evaluation and Impact Assessment
  • Dissemination

The aim of participatory drama is not polished theatre, but to directly engage participants in identifying and rehearsing changes, and new ways in which women and men can relate to each other, and new ways of addressing inequality.

EVERYONE CAN BE AN ACTOR AND HAVE FUN WITH CHANGE.