Journeys

The underlying framework for all GALS processes is the ‘Road Journey’ or ‘Road Map’ change planning tool. This is of two basic types that can be combined or done separately:

  • Vision Journeys look to the future. This is generally the first Vision Journey to inspire with change to the future.
  • Achievement Journeys assess lessons from the past. This is generally used as part of a later review where it is combined with planning the next vision journey to the future.

The basic Journey framework can be adapted to any issue.

Common steps:
  1. Vision or dream: what is the underlying longer-term purpose of the journey?
  2. Baseline: current and/or past situation and joining the circles with the road.
  3. SWOT: Opportunities (10+ top of the road) and Challenges (full risk analysis bottom of the road). Things more controllable (strengths and weaknesses) go closer to the road. Things that cannot be controlled go further from the road. Finally identification of new opportunities so that opportunities still are more than risks. Or possibly abort plan.
  4. Milestones: Vision Journeys have medium term future target should be motivating, then 2-4 milestones the first of which should be after 1 month so that action starts immediately. Achievement Journey has past milestones.
  5. Actions to go from target to target.
  6. Journeys are tracked over time to assess progress, and also reasons for progress or lack of it.
Key considerations in design/adaptation:

a) whose journey is it? individual? household? collective? organisational?

b) what is the question/purpose/vision? how to be clear so things do not become too broad to be useful as a plan?

c) how many lanes? is it a simple vision journey or a multilane highway?

d) when should the milestones and targets be? Should these be decided by the participant? Or is there a specific organisational/project framework eg loan cycle that has to be accommodated? Is it a calendar with monthly targets?

Types of vision journey 

Vision Journeys

The first Vision Journey (individual) is a simple one-lane plan to achieve one or more elements of a bigger vision.

Livelihood Vision Calendars

A business plan with month by month breakdown of inputs and outputs.
How to Do It : Coffee Vision Calendar

  • Leadership Vision Journey

    A plan to become a leader (tool forthcoming)

  • Organisational Multilane Vision Journey

    This is a core GALS monitoring tool. It combines targets and plans on the core intervention targets (eg livelihoods, coffee production, health), gender balance and leadership on one diagram that is tracked over time.
    How to Do It : Multilane Vision Journey for coffeeRoad Journeys are progressively refined using other types of diagram tools that are adapted and sequenced in specific ways, depending on the nature of the issue and process. Each of these diagram tools can also be used individually and adapted in many different ways for analysis, planning and tracking.

  • For video examples see:

    Songs

 

Dinna’s Story, Tanzania
Dinna’s Story

Dinna’s Journey

Dinna’s Leadership Vision

Masika Elizabeth’s Multilane Highway, Uganda

 

Hawa’s Coffee Calendar

Overall Monitoring Framework

Top Lane: Vision Journey

Middle Lane: Gender Balance Tree

Bottom Lane Empowerment Leadership Map

Organisational Planning

 Organisational Vision Journey, Kabarole Resource Centre, Uganda

Circles

Circles

Circle maps (also known as Venn or chapati diagrams) show the common and distinct features between different elements represented as overlapping circles. They are used for analysis of interrelationships and power relations. Examples of Circle Maps include:

    • Empowerment Leadership Map

      looks at support networks and power relations to plan and track peer sharing.
      How to Do It : Empowerment Leadership Map

    • Market Map

      market map to look at possibilities for market diversification and increasing gender balance in markets: To download details of how to use this tool for coffee.
      How to Do It : Coffee Market Map

    • Institutional governance map

      institutional governance map to look at inter-organisational power relations and how they can be changed.
      How to Do It :(forthcoming)

back to top

Trees

Trees

Trees start from a trunk representing an issue or an institution like a household or community. Inputs are then shown as roots and outputs as branches. In GALS trees also have fruits or concrete action commitments. They may also have circular linkages from branches to roots to show cycles of cross-fertilisation.

Types of trees include:

    • Gender Balance Tree:

      The Gender Balance Tree identifies gender inequalities in work contribution and expenditure benefits in the household and the changes needed for gender balance to make the tree grow straight.
      How to Do It : Gender Balance Tree

    • Livelihood Tree:

      Livelihood Trees are a ‘snapshot’ planning tool to examine existing costs and income structure for particular economic activities and how incomes can be increased through changing costs and/or expenditures to enable reinvestment and savings.
      How to Do It : Household Coffee Tree

    • Challenge Action Tree:

      Challenge Action Tree (an action-oriented adaptation of a ‘problem solution tree) examines the causes of challenges, potential solutions to reach a vision and action commitments needed by individuals to move forward.
      How to Do It : Increasing Incomes Challenge Action Tree

Impact Tree

    Any of the above trees can be quantified over time as a monitoring tool.

Songs

Gender Balance Tree

Business Tree

Challenge Action Tree

Impact Tree

Diamonds

Diamonds are used to:

  • deepen visions through establishing locally relevant SMART indicators
  • investigate extent and patterns of differentiation within communities and/or groups in those visions and indicators
  • rapid participatory impact assessment
  • establish locally-relevant priorities for change and set targets

With experienced facilitation they are a good tool to use with very large numbers of people. In the images below from Ivory Coast gender diamonds were used with 350 women and men, many of whom had not been to a meeting before and could not read and write. The groups quickly learned to self-facilitate with a small number of people who were doing the exercise for the first time leading and in communication with the main facilitator. All the group diamonds were quantified and fed back to the plenary. But because of the gender imbalance – many more women than men – there was no bringing together in to a ‘parent diamond’ (see below.

Steps

It is very important that the Diamond is self-facilitated by the groups. Apart from giving instructions on the main steps and ensuring everyone is participants, the facilitator/s only intervene at the end through posing certain questions and summing up.

1) Individual reflection: participants identify what criteria they think characterise extreme opposites of an issue or spectrum eg poverty, empowerment, violence. They draw these extremes on a set number of colour-coded cards.

2)Sharing: participants form groups of people as relevant to the issue and share their cards. This is often done as a game like charades where one person comes up and shows the card, the others first have to guess what it means. Then those with the same issue/criteria hand their cards to the person at the front. That person sits down and the next person comes up until all cards are finished.

3) Voting: having heard everyone else’s ideas, participants are then given a certain number of votes. They come up and confidentially put a mark on the cards they want to vote on. The difference between the number of cards and the number of votes for any issue can be taken as a rough indicator of changes in attitude/awareness as a result of the exercise.

4) Ranking: the votes are then counted and placed on the relevant level of the diamond: best likes at the top, medium likes towards the middle, medium dislikes middle below the line, worst dislikes at the bottom.

5) Plenary: the groups present their group diamond. As they do so they remove the card from their own drawing and, with discussion with the rest of the participants, place these cards either on their side or in the middle of the ‘parent diamond’.

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Then they progressively move inwards to obtain a scale towards  the average situation or majority of a population as the middle of a diamond.  Then the numbers of people within each band scale are plotted as before, after and/or target situations. This is then used as the basis for discussion of how the situation of those at the bottom of the diagram can be substantially improved.

Types of diamonds

Diamonds may be of many different types including, but by no means only:

Poverty diamond

Looks at whether most people are above or below the poverty line as identified by a community, then how many people are very rich or very poor, what criteria are used and why. This can also focus on particular dimensions of poverty eg food security.

!!Insert from KRC, LEAP and USAID

Gender Diamonds

Used as part of GALS, but also generating gender visions and indicators in PALS and FALS. These can focus generally on perceptions that women and men have of ’empowerment’, happy  families’, gender justice/empowerment’.

For discussion see:

Diamonds Are a Girl’s Best Friend

ANANDI_Diamonds

  • Empowerment diamond

Looks at whether most people consider themselves, or could be considered, powerful, how many people are very powerful or very powerless, what criteria are used and why.

See examples from Pakistan:

Kash Empowerment Diamonds

  • Household equality diamond

Looks at concepts of household equality, where the most households are above or below this ideal, the criteria used and the numbers and characteristics of ideal households and very bad households.

See examples from Pakistan:

Equity Diamond Pakistan

Taraqee Diamonds

Or the Diamond Tool can be used to look in detail at specific issues like violence, property rights, decision-making and other dimensions of CEDAW.

  • Violence diamond

Starts by examining the types of domestic, caste or community violence to which most people are subject. Then it looks at what an ideal state would be, and the very worst cases. Then the incidence can be quantified. For violence like domestic violence where even women suffering from it may deny its existence it may be best to start with extreme cases and then move up to awareness of generalised levels of violence or harassment.

See discussion of CEDAW Diamonds

Leadership Diamonds

Used in Tanzania coffee sector.